The Cold War.  A Hot War in reality.  Part 2

I have completed 100,000 words of my third novel of my new ‘Cold War’ trilogy. The Blue Effect is the third in the series, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980’s.  I will finish the fine tuning over the next couple of weeks, then off to the Editor. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, encompasses the intelligence build up leading to the Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The Black Effect takes it a stage further. The Blue Effect? Well, you will find out in May 2014.

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

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The capital of Germany, Berlin, was divided into four Sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Zone of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. From 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between Berlin and the West. A wall, 124 mile miles in length, was placed around the three sectors of West Berlin, cutting off the city from the rest of the world.

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Cold war 9

The badly damaged Reichstag. Berlin 1945

The present day Reichstag. 2012.

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An Iconic picture of the face-off between the West and the East.  The Cold War starts – October 1961

Another iconic picture of a GDR Border Guard fleeing across the barbed wire to the West -Berlin 1961


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I shall cover various aspects of the two opposing forces, providing the backdrop and background information in preparation for the release of my three novels. In the meantime, you could always read my WW2 series, Devils with Wings. 🙂

In 1984/85, the Warsaw Pact was already a significant force, the Soviet Union in particular. For this, and the next Post, I will cover the Soviet and NATO strategic inventory, which was being modernised by both the Warsaw Pact and NATO.

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Soviet Typhoon Class submarine under way. 

Apart from the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles in their Strategic arsenal, both the Soviet Union and NATO had a second arm that could be used to initiate a nuclear strike, Submarine launched Ballistic Missiles, SLBMs. What made these particularly important was their survivability and their ability to initiate a retaliatory strike. Should the Soviets, or NATO for that matter, decide to launch a massive pre-emptive nuclear strike that could potentially wipe out all fixed ICBM sites, all countries with SLBMs would be in a position to strike back. The ‘Assured Mutual Destruction’ concept.

The Soviet Union had 2 x H-II SSBN (SSBN Ballistic Missile carrying submarine) (3 x SS-N-5), 1 x H-III  SSBN (6 x SS-N-8), 23 x Y-I SSBN (16 x SS-N-6), 1 x Y-II (12 x SS-N-17), 18 x D-I SSBN (12 x SS-N-8), 4 x D-II SSBN (16 x SS-N-8), 14 x D-III SSBN (16 x SS-N-18) and 2 x Typhoon SSBN (20 x SS-N-20). Four more Typhoons were under construction.

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Cold War Years 017 (1)

A Russian Yankee Class SSBN, K-219.

The above is the Yankee Class SSBN. K-219 was lost at sea in 1986, after an explosion and fire onboard. This was the first Soviet submarine to have thermonuclear firepower comparable with their American and British counterparts.

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The above is a Delta Class SSBN, a D-IV. The time period I am covering in my novels, this would only have been in the building phase.

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Delta II SSBN

The Delta III was equipped with a new battle management system, the Almaz-BDR, for the fire control of torpedoes in deep water. This was the first Soviet submarine that could launch any number of missiles in a single salvo and also the first to carry ballistic missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs). Each of the 16 missiles could carry 3-7 MIRVs.

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Typhoon Class SSBN, the largest class of submarine ever built with a displacement of 48,000 tons.

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These latest Russian submarines could patrol under the icecap and then surface to launch their missiles, negating the need to transit the Greenland-Iceland-United Kingdom, GIUK, gap.

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The US, UK and France also possessed SSBNs

US – 4 x Ohio SSBN (24 x Trident) 7 x Ohio on order, 19 x Lafayette SSBN (16 x Poseidon) and 12 x Franklin Class SSBN (16 x Trident).

UK – 4 x Resolution Class SSBN (16 x Polaris A3 (3 x MIRV))

France – 4 x Redoutable Class SSBN (16 x M-20)

Ohio SSBN undergoing a conversion to an SSGN, a conventional missile submarine, in 2003.

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HMS Renown, one of four SSBNs, later replaced by the Vanguard Class of submarine, carrying Trident 2.

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The French Redoutable Class SSBN

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A Trident II missiles fires its first stage  SRB after an underwater launch from a Royal Navy Vanguard Class ballistic missile submarine.

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There were also the conventional forces lined up along the Inner German Border, the visible barrier between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR), or better known as West and East Germany. I shall be covering their organisation and equipment over the coming months.

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Ferret Mk 5, Scout Car with (4)  Swingfire Missiles. Swingfire was an anti-tank, wire guided missile capable of destroying any armoured fighting vehicle in its day, 1965 – 1970.

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Weighing in the region of 4 1/2 tons, it travelled at a top speed of nearly 50mph. It had an armour thickness of 16mm, and a crew of 2.

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Leopard C2, Main Battle Tank.

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70mm armour, this tank was used by the Canadian Army.

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42 tons, crew of 4 and a top speed of 40mph.

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A 105mm gun was its main weapon, supported 2 x 7.62mm MGs

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This was the preferred replacement for the British Centurion as the new Chieftain was seen as too powerful for anything other than a global conflict.

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Soviet soldiers on exercise in East Berlin – East Berlin 1984

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my research and experiences with you.  This above, The Red Effect is the first of my new ‘Cold War’ series. The Black Effect is now available. The Blue Effect is due out in May

Photographs and Blog are copyrighted to Harvey Black

The Cold War. A Hot war in reality.  Part 1

I have completed the second novel of my new ‘Cold War’ series. There will be three books in total, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980’s. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, will encompass the intelligence build up leading to the Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The Black Effect follows on……

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

.

The capital of Germany, Berlin, was divided into four Sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Zone of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. From 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between Berlin and the West. A wall, 124 mile miles in length, was placed around the three sectors of West Berlin, cutting off the city from the rest of the world.

The badly damaged Reichstag. Berlin 1945

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An Iconic picture of the face-off between the West and the East.  The Cold War starts – October 1961

Another iconic picture of a GDR Border Guard fleeing across the barbed-wire to escape to West -Berlin (1961)

The Reichstag, showing the Berlin Wall in place behind it. – West Berlin 1981.

I shall cover various aspects of the two opposing forces, providing the backdrop and background information my Cold War trilogy.

In 1984/85, the Warsaw Pact was already a significant force, the Soviet Union in particular. For this, and the next Post, I will cover the Soviet and NATO strategic inventory, which was being modernised by both the Warsaw Pact and NATO.

SS-19. In 1984/5, the Soviet Union had some 360 of these ICBM’s (Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles), most of them of the mod. 3 variety, with 6 MIRV’s (Multiple Independently targetable Reentry Vehicles), basically multiple nuclear warheads. 

The SS-19, deployed in 1982, was 27 metres in length, 2.5 metres wide and weighed in excess of 100,000 kilograms. It had a two-stage liquid fuel propulsion system with a PBV (Post-Boost Vehicle for a hot launch) which gave it a range of up to 10,000 kilometres. Mod 3 would carry a 550 kiloton yield (MIRV), whereas the Mod 2, would carry a 5 megaton yield warhead.

Apart from the SS-19’s, the most modern ICBM in their armoury, the Soviet Union had 520 x SS-11, 60 x SS-13, 150 x SS-17 (many being deployed with 4 MIRV’s) and 308 x SS-18 (Being upgraded to carry 10 MIRV’s).

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Minuteman III missile inside its Silo, 60 miles from Grand Forks Air Base, late 1980.

NATO too, in particular the United States, modernised their nuclear arsenal in the race to reach a state of ‘mutual assured destruction’. NATOs strategy was dependent on the Soviet Union believing that NATO would respond with an all out, devastating nuclear response to any aggressive moves they might make, whether Nuclear or Conventional. The focus very much on the Iron Curtain hot spot that stretched along the Inner German Border.  There were many incidents that came close to inciting a nuclear exchange.

NATO’s strategic forces (I shall cover bombers and submarines at a later date) were underpinned by the United Staes, United Kingdom and France. The US had 450 x LGM-30F (minuteman II), 550 x LGM-30G with 3 MIRV (minuteman III) and 37 x Titan 2, phasing out by the end of 1987.

A minuteman III missile being launched. An ICBM, with a three-stage power plant, consisting of three solid-propellant rocket motors; first stage – Thiokol; second stage – Aerojet-General; third stage – United Technologies Chemical Systems Division.

With a height of 18 metres, diameter of just under 2 metres it weighed significantly less than the SS-19, at 36,000 kilograms. But it still had a range of over 6,000 miles and could travel at a speed in excess of 15,000 mph, Mach 23! It carried a warhead of  170 kilotons, 350 kilotons or up to 450 kilotons. With three MIRV’s, this was capable of a significant punch.

The British and French nuclear forces were very much submarine and air launched (apart from tactical nuclear weapons), I will cover those at a later date.

There were also the conventional forces lined up along the Inner German Border, the visible barrier between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR), or better known as West and East Germany. I shall be covering their organisation and equipment over the coming months.

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The T-62 might be an old tank, but in the early days it was the mainstay of the Soviet Army.

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Weighing in the region of 40 tons, it could still travel at a top speed of nearly 50mph with its V-12, 38 litre engine.

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This one, on display in the Bovington Tank Museum,  was captured from the Iraqi forces during the 1991 Gulf War.

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Infrared searchlight on the right of the turret, next to the 115mm main gun.

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These days the Infrared could easily be detected by modern equipment.

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A Soviet T-62 in East Berlin.  – East Berlin, 1984

 


t-54/55 on parade – East Berlin 1984

Although it can be classed as an insignificant tank, and maybe not even referred to as a Main Battle Tank, when up against T-64’s, T-72’s and T-80’s, it is still very much in use across the world. One thing I would like to point out, in 1984/5, the Soviet Union had 35,000 T-54/55/62’s in service. The British Army at that time had less than a 1,000 MBTs. Quality versus quantity? Would we have had enough ammunition?

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my research and experiences with you.  This is the first of my new ‘Cold War’ series, supporting the writing of my new ‘Cold War’ series of novels, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany by the Warsaw Pact in the 80’s. ‘The Red Effect’.

Photographs and Blog are copyrighted to Harvey Black

Berlin, The Cold War Years Part 5. A Hot War in reality.

At the end of World War 2, what remained of pre-war Germany was divided into four zones of occupation. Each of the Allied powers; the United Kingdom, United States, France and Russia, controlled one of them.

The capital of Germany, Berlin, was also divided into four Sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Zone of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. From 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between Berlin and the West. A wall, 124 mile miles in length, was placed around the three sectors of West Berlin, cutting off the city from the rest of the world.

An Iconic picture of the face-off between the West and the East.  The Cold War starts – October 1961

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Another iconic picture of a GDR Border Guard fleeing across the barbed wire to  West-Berlin, 1961

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With these controls in place, special routes were established for the three Allied Powers, Great Britain, the United Staes and France, to move from West Berlin to the Federal Republic of Germany, West Germany. Three autobahn routes, one for each sector and three rail routes.

On the Autobahn route special parking zones were allocated for the three Allied powers. This is a sign on the West Berlin to Helmstedt route. Civilians from the GDR were not allowed to use these allocated parking zones. – GDR 1982

 

The British Military Train ran every day, except Christmas Day.  – West Berlin 1984

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And for the Stamp Collectors amongst you, a Commemorative Cover. First day issue. Not for sale. 🙂

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There were also air corridors the Allies could use to fly from West Berlin to West Germany. Soviet Hip F. East Berlin 1984

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 Control to and from West Berlin was controlled by the Berlin Air Safety Centre, consisting of representatives from the four Allied Powers. I was told that the Soviets were unhappy about their flag being last on the plaque. So, the names were placed in a hat and guess what? True story or not, I don’t know.

 

Berlin Air Safety Centre Icon – West Berlin 1984

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I covered the Reichstag in Part 4. But, I have some more photos i would like to share with you.

This turret on the Reichstag is the well known spot where the Soviet Flag was planted on taking Berlin in 1945.  Berlin – February 2012

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The raising of the flag over the Reichstag – Berlin, May 1945

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I found the design of the new dome in the Reichstag fascinating, so I have added a couple of more photos.

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Inside the Reichstag Dome, Berlin – February 2012

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Looking down from higher up in the Dome itself. Reichstag – Berlin, February 2012

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The badly damaged Reichstag. Berlin 1945

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The Reichstag, showing the Berlin Wall in situ behind it. – West Berlin 1981.

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Bullet strikes still visible, Museum Island – Berlin February 2012

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Another visit to the Treptow Russian Memorial in Berlin.  February 2012

 

The main entrance to Treptow Park Soviet Memorial – Berlin 2012

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Treptow Park,  The Soviet Navy wasn’t forgotten. Berlin 2012

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One of the many representations of the Soviet Army during WW2 at the Treptow Park Memorial – Berlin 2012

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Outside the entrance to the Tiergarten Soviet Memorial. Berlin 2012

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The Tiergarten Soviet Memorial – Berlin 2012

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Tiergarten Soviet Memorial. They were as interested in us as we were in them. The one on the right with the fancy leg kick, I think is a full Colonel  or above. West Berlin 1983

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T-34 outside the Karlshorst Museum Berlin – 2012

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Karlshorst Museum. Where we used to meet with our Soviet friend….. Berlin 2012

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In a previous Post, you saw a picture of my shadow. This was his replacement. KGB, GRU or Spetsnaz?  He was far more subtle in his recruitment attempts though. East Berlin 1985

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One advantage of being in Army Intelligence, was you got to go to Berchtesgaden every year to the annual conference where we shared intelligence, and vice versa, with the US – Germany 1986.

There were lots of special events and this was one of them. Cocktail dresses and Gin and Tonic. West Berlin 1982

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The Queens Birthday and other events were celebrated with style.

The Berlin Tatto was an amzing event. The parade in front of the Deutschlandhalle prior to the final dress rehearsal. West Berlin 1983.

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The Fernsehturm in Berlin – February 2012

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 The Fernsehturm in Berlin – February 2012

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The Fernsehturm. Sitting in the revolving restaurant seeing the full 360 degree view of Berlin was amazing. When the sun shone on the tower it reflected as a cross and was known as ‘The Popes Revenge’.  – East Berlin 1983

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The one on the far right is Moby Dick – West Berlin 1982

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A quick break from Berlin. I did three tours in Northern Ireland, but don’t propose to do a Post for it separately. It’s too close to home…. But I will share a few photos with you.

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I currently have a book, my watch and my iPad next to my bed. Then, I had a 9mm Browning. You would take the rounds out  so as to take the pressure off the magazine springs.  Oh, and I liked Ultravox. – Belfast 1980’s

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Murals of this type were very common.  – Belfast 1980’s

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Belfast- 1980’s

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Belfast- 1980’s

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Targeting an Army Pig (Humber) – Belfast 1980’s

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I used to play Cowboys and Indians as a child. Belfast 1980’s

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Those were very scary times. Belfast 1980’s

 Now back to work….

Well, at least once we’ve dug our vehicle out…. East Berlin, 1983

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Then time for a rest. We often slept out, Sometimes we took sleeping bags as we couldn’t run the engines as we needed to preserve our fuel. Our favourite drink was a flask of black coffee with a good dose of Grand Marnier. – East Berlin 1982

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Back to work. 2S1 Self Propelled Artillery (122mm) – East Berlin, 1984

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Until interrupted. East Berlin, East Berlin 1983.

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ACRV’s, Armoured Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle. The chassis was far too long for this vehicle, making it difficult to manoeuvre. – East Berlin 1984

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Ural 375 – East Berlin 1984

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Rm-70 Rocket Launcher (122mm) – East Berlin 1984.

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One key event that occurred every year, was the military parade to celebrate the formation of the GDR. This was naturally a key concern for the western allies. A country we didn’t officially recognise, holding a military parade on our doorstep. It was also an opportunity to disguise the movement of troops for a potential attack.

SA-3 Resupply on a Ural 375 chassis. –  East Berlin – 1984

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ZSU 23-4 (Shilka) (Anti-Aircraft) – East Berlin 1984

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2S3 (152mm Self propelled artillery) – East Berlin – 1984

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2S3. East Berlin 1984

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SA-6 resupply. East Berlin 1984

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2S3 (122mm self propelled artillery) – East Berlin 1984

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Parade ready to start, SA-4 resupply on Ural 375 transporter. East Berlin 1984.

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BMP – 1 with Sagger missile East Berlin 1984.

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FROG 7, resupply. Range of 68km. Can carry a Nuclear (200- 450kt warhead), HE, Chemical and submunitions. – East Berlin 1984

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The closer we could get to the equipment the better. It gave our analysts an inclination of any changes to equipment. We were constantly designing new equipment and defence measures that cost billions of pounds. In order for us to make the right decisions we needed to know what we were up against. We would always use black and white film, in stereo if possible, and not the colour ones you see now. Catching tanks, etc, stationery and unmanned, on exercise, or on flat cars in rail sidings gave us the best opportunities but held the greater risk. The guards were always armed.

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T-12 Anti-Tank Gun. East berlin 1984

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Silk Worm. Surface to Ship TEL. East berlin 1984

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BMP -2. –  East berlin 1984

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BMP – 2. – East berlin 1984

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I will finish off with a bit of fun. I can’t remember where this was in Berlin, but it is known as the ‘Sex Museum’.

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Berlin Sex Museum. -Berlin 2012

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Berlin Sex Museum. Berlin 2012

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my photographs and experiences with you.  This is the last of my Berlin, The Cold War series. But, there will be a new ‘Cold War’ series, supporting the writing of my new ‘Cold War’ series of novels, covering the hypothetical invasion of West germany by the Warsaw Pact in the 80’s. ‘The Red Effect’. so keep your eyes peeled.

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

Photographs are copyrighted to Harvey Black

Berlin, the Cold War Years. A Hot War in reality. – Part 2.

At the end of World War 2, what remained of pre-war Germany was divided into four sectors of occupation. Each of the Allied powers; the United Kingdom, United States, France and Russia, controlled one of them.

The capital of Germany, Berlin, was also divided into four sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Sector of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. From 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between the City of Berlin and the West. The main access point for the three Western Allies was the famous ‘Checkpoint Charlie’. I transited through that point on numerous occasions at all hours of the day and Night. Now it no longer exists and is merely a tourist site.

Checkpoint Charlie – 1983

Checkpoint Charlie – February 2102

As I previously stated in Part 1, I had an Intelligence gathering role while serving in Berlin. On my recent visit, I landed at Schonefeld Airport, which up until reunification was in East Berlin. Below was my previous visit to the Airport, trapped in the runway lights by the VOPO, Volkspolitzei. There was no ‘Virgin’ airhostess coming to my rescue.

 

Caught napping again, this time by the Volkspolitzei amongst Schonefeld runway lights – 1983

I particularly enjoyed my visit to the Reichstag, on this occasion able to see it from the inside. During reconstruction, it was practically gutted, being redesigned by the British architect, Sir Norman Foster. The new glass dome is truly impressive, erected on the roof as a gesture to the original 1894, cupola.

Reichstag – February 2012

Supporting structure for the glass dome, the German Parliament sits directly below – February 2012

Parliament seats directly below

Not all of the original internal walls were demolished, and a few, covered in graffiti scrawled by victorious Russian soldiers once the Reichstag had fallen, still remain.

One section of many, showing graffiti left by Russian troops on capturing the Reichstag – Feb 2012

The Reichstag. Note the “Berlin Wall’ in the background – 1983

The fourth member of the ‘Allied Powers’ was naturally the Soviet Union. Below is one of the Soviet memorials close to the Reichstag.

Soviet War Memorial, Tiergarten. – February 2012

There was very much a sinister side to the Soviet Union at that time. Army-General Mikhail Zaitsev, commander of the Group of Soviet Forces Germany, GSFG, seen attending a Ceremony at the Soviet Memorial, Tiergarten, the big man in the middle, was in command of one of their key forces. GSFG would be assigned to any likely attack on the NATO Alliance and the potential invasion of West Germany. Consisting of some 20 Divisions made up of over 4,000 tanks and 8,000 armoured vehicles, it was a phenomenal force. But, behind that were well over 140 other Soviet tank and Infantry divisions, albeit of a lower quality.

Being a part of the Warsaw Pact Alliance, they could also call upon significant forces from Poland, East Germany, Romania, Hungary and more. When I cut my teeth in the army serving with an Armoured Brigade in northern Germany, it wasn’t a question of if they were coming across the Inner German Border, but when.

Commander of the GFSG, at the Soviet War Memorial Tiergarten – 1982

Part of my role in Berlin in the early 80’s, was to track the movement of Russian and East German forces.

 

East German FROG 7, missile carrier, being moved by rail – 1982

Soviet Infantry on exercise – 1981

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RM-70, the East German equivalent of the Russian BM-21 – 1983

On completion of my tour, one of my team wrote a song for me, to the tune of  ‘Country Roads’. It was a privilege to serve with such a specialist unit.

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The majority of us are aware of the atrocities carried out by the Nazis during WW2, so I particularly wanted to see the Memorial to the Jewish dead.  It wasn’t built without controversy.

Memorial to the murdered Jews of Europe – Berlin February 2012

 Some felt the memorial should have looked very different, others were concerned it was very close to where Hitler’s bunker had been and their was controversy concerning the manufacturers involved in the project and potential links with the Nazis regime during WW2.

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my photographs and experiences with you. 

Photographs are copyrighted to Harvey Black