The Cold War. A Hot war in reality.  Part 1

I have completed the second novel of my new ‘Cold War’ series. There will be three books in total, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980’s. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, will encompass the intelligence build up leading to the Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The Black Effect follows on……

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

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The capital of Germany, Berlin, was divided into four Sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Zone of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. From 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between Berlin and the West. A wall, 124 mile miles in length, was placed around the three sectors of West Berlin, cutting off the city from the rest of the world.

The badly damaged Reichstag. Berlin 1945

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An Iconic picture of the face-off between the West and the East.  The Cold War starts – October 1961

Another iconic picture of a GDR Border Guard fleeing across the barbed-wire to escape to West -Berlin (1961)

The Reichstag, showing the Berlin Wall in place behind it. – West Berlin 1981.

I shall cover various aspects of the two opposing forces, providing the backdrop and background information my Cold War trilogy.

In 1984/85, the Warsaw Pact was already a significant force, the Soviet Union in particular. For this, and the next Post, I will cover the Soviet and NATO strategic inventory, which was being modernised by both the Warsaw Pact and NATO.

SS-19. In 1984/5, the Soviet Union had some 360 of these ICBM’s (Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles), most of them of the mod. 3 variety, with 6 MIRV’s (Multiple Independently targetable Reentry Vehicles), basically multiple nuclear warheads. 

The SS-19, deployed in 1982, was 27 metres in length, 2.5 metres wide and weighed in excess of 100,000 kilograms. It had a two-stage liquid fuel propulsion system with a PBV (Post-Boost Vehicle for a hot launch) which gave it a range of up to 10,000 kilometres. Mod 3 would carry a 550 kiloton yield (MIRV), whereas the Mod 2, would carry a 5 megaton yield warhead.

Apart from the SS-19’s, the most modern ICBM in their armoury, the Soviet Union had 520 x SS-11, 60 x SS-13, 150 x SS-17 (many being deployed with 4 MIRV’s) and 308 x SS-18 (Being upgraded to carry 10 MIRV’s).

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Minuteman III missile inside its Silo, 60 miles from Grand Forks Air Base, late 1980.

NATO too, in particular the United States, modernised their nuclear arsenal in the race to reach a state of ‘mutual assured destruction’. NATOs strategy was dependent on the Soviet Union believing that NATO would respond with an all out, devastating nuclear response to any aggressive moves they might make, whether Nuclear or Conventional. The focus very much on the Iron Curtain hot spot that stretched along the Inner German Border.  There were many incidents that came close to inciting a nuclear exchange.

NATO’s strategic forces (I shall cover bombers and submarines at a later date) were underpinned by the United Staes, United Kingdom and France. The US had 450 x LGM-30F (minuteman II), 550 x LGM-30G with 3 MIRV (minuteman III) and 37 x Titan 2, phasing out by the end of 1987.

A minuteman III missile being launched. An ICBM, with a three-stage power plant, consisting of three solid-propellant rocket motors; first stage – Thiokol; second stage – Aerojet-General; third stage – United Technologies Chemical Systems Division.

With a height of 18 metres, diameter of just under 2 metres it weighed significantly less than the SS-19, at 36,000 kilograms. But it still had a range of over 6,000 miles and could travel at a speed in excess of 15,000 mph, Mach 23! It carried a warhead of  170 kilotons, 350 kilotons or up to 450 kilotons. With three MIRV’s, this was capable of a significant punch.

The British and French nuclear forces were very much submarine and air launched (apart from tactical nuclear weapons), I will cover those at a later date.

There were also the conventional forces lined up along the Inner German Border, the visible barrier between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR), or better known as West and East Germany. I shall be covering their organisation and equipment over the coming months.

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The T-62 might be an old tank, but in the early days it was the mainstay of the Soviet Army.

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Weighing in the region of 40 tons, it could still travel at a top speed of nearly 50mph with its V-12, 38 litre engine.

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This one, on display in the Bovington Tank Museum,  was captured from the Iraqi forces during the 1991 Gulf War.

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Infrared searchlight on the right of the turret, next to the 115mm main gun.

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These days the Infrared could easily be detected by modern equipment.

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A Soviet T-62 in East Berlin.  – East Berlin, 1984

 


t-54/55 on parade – East Berlin 1984

Although it can be classed as an insignificant tank, and maybe not even referred to as a Main Battle Tank, when up against T-64’s, T-72’s and T-80’s, it is still very much in use across the world. One thing I would like to point out, in 1984/5, the Soviet Union had 35,000 T-54/55/62’s in service. The British Army at that time had less than a 1,000 MBTs. Quality versus quantity? Would we have had enough ammunition?

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my research and experiences with you.  This is the first of my new ‘Cold War’ series, supporting the writing of my new ‘Cold War’ series of novels, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany by the Warsaw Pact in the 80’s. ‘The Red Effect’.

Photographs and Blog are copyrighted to Harvey Black

Berlin, the Cold War Years – Part 4. A Hot War in reality.

At the end of World War 2, what remained of pre-war Germany was divided into four zones of occupation. Each of the Allied powers; the United Kingdom, United States, France and Russia, controlled one of them.

The capital of Germany, Berlin, was also divided into four Sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Zone of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. From 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between Berlin and the West. A wall, 124 mile miles in length, was placed around the three sectors of West Berlin, cutting off the city from the rest of the world.

Remnants of the infamous Berlin Wall – February 2012

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Remnants of the infamous Berlin Wall – February 2012

Having free, unhindered access to East Berlin and Museum Island was a real treat for me. Below is the Der Deutschen Kunst Museum, the House of Art Museum.

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Deutschen Kunst Museum – Berlin – February 2012 

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Deutschen Kunst Museum, Berlin. Joseph Goebbels visiting – 1937

Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-H02648,_München,_Goebbels_im_Haus_der_Deutschen_Kunst.jpg

Also on the Island, the Berliner Dom, or Berlin Cathedral. In the 1940’s, it suffered considerable damage from bomb blast waves and incendiaries. Over the years it has been slowly restored.

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Berliner Dom – February 2012

With my passion for military history, I naturally wanted to see this building below, Wilhelmstrasse 81-85. Luftwaffe Historians would know that in 1933, the newly formed Reich Aviation Ministry, headed by Hermann Goering, occupied it. The complex was demolished  in 1935 and was re-built.  The building you see today, with over 2,000 rooms.

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Wilhelmstrasse 81-85, Berlin – February 2012

The Bebelplatz is known as the site of the infamous Nazi book burning ceremony held on the evening of the 10th May, 1933. Today, a memorial by Micha Ullman, consisting of a glass plate set into the cobblestones, shows empty book cases below.

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Bebelplatz, Berlin – February 2012

At the end of the day the GDR, and East Berlin, were occupied by the Soviet Union and their military were ever present.

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Russian T-62 driving passed a Kindergarten – East Berlin 1983

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There were ‘Restricted Areas’ where the Soviets preferred us not to go. We naturally ignored them. I got this one to take home as a souvenir.

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Russian helicopter taking an interest in us. Hip (Mi-8) – East Berlin 1983

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This one is a deadly Hind-D (Mi-24). The worlds first Attack Helicopter. East Berlin – 1983

Below are some photographs of the Treptow Soviet Memorial. Although the GDR was part of the Warsaw Pact, the Soviets were still very much an occupying power. The memorial below, to the Soviet soldiers killed in WW2,  is of a significant size.

Main entrance. The people give you an indication of its size. East Berlin – February 2012

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View from the main entrance. Note the vertical slabs either side – East Berlin, February 2012

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Each slab was carved with a scene depicting elements of WW2 – February 2012

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Treptow Park Memorial – East Berlin, February 2012

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The view looking back towards the entrance. East Berlin, February 2012.

For an interlude, I will share a few shots of my very first parachute jump. I did my jumps between my first tour in Northern Ireland and coming to Berlin. I completed my jumps with the Dutch Commandos, my first one landing on my feet, arse and head. Not quite the perfect roll I had anticipated.

Gulp, I’m ready. 1981

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Yes that is me. My chute did open.

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Yes you do have to carry your own chute back!

One key event that occurred every year, was the military parade to celebrate the formation of the GDR. This was naturally a key concern for the western allies. A country we didn’t officially recognise, holding a military parade on our doorstep. It was also an opportunity to disguise the movement of troops for a potential attack.

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Troops start to flood in on the outskirts of East Berlin – 1984

First one is a FROG (Free Rocket Over Ground) 7 resupply, the second a FROG  7 TEL (Transporter, Erector, Launcher). FROG 7’s played a key part in the missile attacks on Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

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Ural 375 – East Berlin 1984

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Troops also arrived by rail – East Berlin – 1984

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BRDM at the front and two ACRV’s, Armoured Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle. East Berlin 1984

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Many of the troops were camped out at various parks and car parks on the outskirts. East Berlin 1984

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Night time operations were a regular part of our life, often staying out for days at a time. East Berlin 1984

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Posing shot…  – East Berlin 1984

Then the fun and games begin….

Can you spot him? East Berlin 1983

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See him now?

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And another.

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The VOPO were never far away. East Berlin 1984

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The more troops and equipment that arrived, the more reinforcements to make life difficult for us. East Berlin 1984

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Underside photographs were a key goal.  This one showing a mine plough attachment. Weld thickness would also help in determining the thickness of a tanks armour. East Berlin 1984.

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This is of a BMP-2, moving at the time. East Berlin 1984.

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The tensions steadily got worse. Don’t forget, we didn’t recognise the GDR government, let a alone the Police. West Berlin police had no authority over us either, as we were also an occupying power in West Berlin. East Berlin 1984.

The glasses were fashionable at the time!

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BMP-2, the latest MICV, Mechanised Infantry Combat Vehicle, in the GDR and Soviet arsenal. An AT-5, Spandrel anti-tank missile sits on top of the turret. East Berlin 1984.

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BMP 1. A close up of the AT-3, Sagger, anti-tank missile. The wire guided missile devastated

the Israeli tanks during the Yom Kippur War  – East Berlin 1984

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SA-13  Gopher, Surface to Air Missil carrier. – East Berlin  1984

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SA 8 Gecko, Surface to Air Missile carrier – East Berlin 1984

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T-72 tank, the latest in the GDR  Army, the NVA, National Volksarmee. East Berlin 1984.

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During the parade preparations they didn’t like us being around. A bit difficult when one of your team is six foot eight

and built like a brick wall. – East Berlin 1984

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SA 9 Gaskin, Surface to Air Missile, mounted on a BRDM 2. East Berlin 1984

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SA 4 Ganef. Surface to Air Missile, resupply vehicle.  Big! Flew at Mach 4 and could reach a height of 20 miles.

Now I know why I didn’t join the RAF (Best air force in the world). East Berlin 1984

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FROG 7 TEL,  East Berlin 1984.

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The German Navy was always in attendance. East Berlin 1984.

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Tatra 813 towing and M1974 artillery piece. East Berlin 1984.

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T-72 East Berlin 1984

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BMP -1, MICV with troops. One draw back was thin armour and fuel tanks in the back doors. East Berlin 1984

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Silkworm TEL, Surface to Ship Missile. East Berlin 1984.

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Silkworm missile resupply. East Berlin 1984.

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T-72. East Berlin 1984.

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T-72.  East Berlin 1984

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The military were pretty high tech, not so the cars. The famous Trabant.

One Trabant hit us and didn’t leave a mark, but the cars front end fell off. Berlin 2012.

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The VOPO, Volkspolitzei’s main mode of transport in the 80’s. Berlin February 2012.

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I shall finish off with an old photo of the ICC, the International Congress Centre. West Berlin 1982.

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my photographs and experiences with you. 

Photographs are copyrighted to Harvey Black

Berlin, the Cold War Years – Part 3. A Hot War in Reality

At the end of World War 2, what remained of pre-war Germany was divided into four sectors of occupation. Each of the Allied powers; the United Kingdom, United States, France and Russia, controlled one of them.

The capital of Germany, Berlin, was also divided into four sectors. The consequence being, that the three Western Allied powers now controlled territory deep within the Soviet Union Sector of Germany.

Over time, the tensions between the four Allied powers increased, eventually resulting in the Berlin blockade in 1948, when the Soviets attempted to starve West Berlin into submission and force the other three Allied powers out. This failed and the Soviets eventually relented, but an ever-increasing number of East Germans fled to the West; between 150,000 and 300,000 a year during 1951-1953. As a consequence restrictions were placed on movement between the divided country. In 1961, the border was closed and Berlin completely encircled, first by barbed wire, then bricks and finally a concrete wall, along with the infamous ‘death strip’.

Access was now restricted between Berlin and the West. A wall, 124 mile miles in length, was placed around the three sectors of West Berlin, cutting off the city from the rest of the world..

Remnants of the infamous Berlin Wall – February 2012

A checkpoint used by the West Berlin population to cross into East Berlin – 1982

Passage was severely restricted. The British, US and French Governments refused to recognise the East German Democratic Republic, GDR, as a consequence all our dealings were with our ally, the Soviet Union. One of the three routes out of Berlin by train, was from Charlottenburg station in West Berlin to Braunschweig in West Germany. It ran every day, except for Christmas Day. Below you can see the procedure that we had to go through, presenting our documents to the Russian authorities going out and on our return.

Berlin Military Train – 1982

There were also three Autobahn routes, one for each of the western allies. Ours ran from Berlin to Helmstedt in West Germany. At each end, one of the car’s occupants would have to hand over their documents, including the one below, through a small hatch where it was inspected (You were photographed , but never saw the occupants). You then had to march to an armed Soviet sentry, salute, wait while he checked your documents, salute again and return to your car. The document had to match your credentials perfectly. They would check your identification letter by letter, and if there was an error, you would not be allowed to pass.

The documentation had to be exact – May 1984

The Soviet Army had a significant presence in East Berlin. The troops below, were returning to Karlshorst Camp, in East Berlin, after completing an exercise.

Soviet Motor Rifle Infantry – East Berlin 1983

 

Taken from a film found on one of our rummaging exploits – 1983

As I previously stated in Parts 1 & 2, I had an Intelligence gathering role while serving in Berlin. We were in a ‘Cold War’ and it was imperative that we tracked the movement of Soviet and GDR forces at that time. The rail ring-road that circuited Berlin was a major rail junction and we kept a close watch on all movement.

Below we had spotted a military train, usually pulled by a black steam locomotive, and wanted to know its destination. Only one way to find out.

 

T-12, Anti-Tank Guns – East Berlin – 1984

Let’s see where they’re going, and hope to god the transport police weren’t close by. They had very big, vicious, Alsatian guard dogs and boy they could run fast. Although the Soviets were very secretive about the movement of equipment, the East German railways, Deutches Reichsbahn, were very efficient and always had a note showing the destination attached to the flat-car. Very convenient.

T-12, Anti-Tank Guns – East Berlin – 1984

Bat-M, Soviet Military Engineer Tractor . Great for digging trenches for the Soviet Infantry- East Berlin – 1984

Soviet 2S1, 122mm self propelled artillery on the East Berlin rail ring – 1983

Troops on the move on the East Berlin rail-ring -1984

The Soviets, like the GDR, also liked to make life difficult for us. On one occasion we managed to get away from an aggressive ‘Box In’, by literally driving on top of a refuse tip and effectively surfing down the other side.

This time boxed in by Soviet Military Police as well as the GDR VOPO – East Berlin 1985.

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But, I did have one Soviet friend… GRU, KGB, Spetsnaz…..? His recruitment attempts were far from subtle. 🙂

Once, we chased a train at night, down narrow lanes, wanting to see the load and where it was going. Doing over a hundred kilometres an hour, no lights, the driver missed the turning and went straight over a T-junction with a drop on the other side. Pushed the bonnet of the Range Rover right back as we hit the ground below. All shaken but alive, we had to be lifted and towed back.

The Soviet Military Police were never far away. 1985

 Getting caught came with consequences. It happened very quickly. A white car skidded across the back of our vehicle blocking our escape. The intention was to reverse into it and push it through the fence, but the Soviets were on us too fast. We couldn’t call for assistance, so my partner did a runner, as we agreed, to call for assistance and guide our backup into the maze of streets  we were in. No mobile phones in those days. In the meantime they had got into the Range Rover, dragged me out and basically went to town on me, the rest is history. It created a political issue, understandably, and elements of the Soviet regime were banned from the Queens Birthday Parade that year. I had myriad of bruises and a lovely black eye. 🙂 For me, the scariest bit was the unknown. The fear that I would be spirited away, but fortunately our back up was close by. That was unusual, as we generally operated as a single unit. Someone was watching over me that day.

Soviets dispersing after their attack on me. The white car that pulled across to block us off, giving them access to my car, was probably MFS.

The nearest soldier is a Lieutenant

This officer is a Senior Lieutenant from the local Tank Regiment.

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My backup was also boxed in.

Once assistance had arrived, my partner had escaped and called for backup, they boxed that vehicle in with a Gaz 66. The closest soldier is a Warrant Officer and you can see that they had bayonets fixed to their rifles. Magazines were also attached to their AK 47’s.  Soviet senior officers eventually arrived, along with officers from the British Military Government and an Interpreter. We were eventually released and I was taken to the BMH for treatment.

During my recent visit I also climbed to the top of the Berlin Victory Column, designed by a Heinrich Strack after 1864, to commemorate the Prussian victory in the Danish-Prussian War.

The Berlin Victory Column, inaugurated in September 1873 – Berlin February 2012

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The Berlin Victory Column, inaugurated in September 1873 – Berlin February 2012

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The view towards East Berlin from the Victory Column – February 2012

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Altes Museum, on Berlin’s ‘Museum Island.’ – February 2012

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Having an interest in military history, particularly WW2, this was one place i wanted to visit. The above museum was often used by Hitler for some of his public parades and speeches. See below.

Adolf Hitler leaving the Altes Museum after giving one of his infamous speeches.

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Enough for now I think, although there will be a Part 4. Part 4 will definitely be the last and I will have new topics, so don’t go away! Seeing as we  in an Olympic year in the UK not so long ago, I thought I would share a picture of the Olympic Stadium, Berlin. The British Military Government was situated not very far away, as was the British Military Hospital that was used to treat Hess when he became ill. I lived opposite the entrance to the Hospital.

Olympic Stadium, made famous by Jesse Owen – East Berlin 1984

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Some of these photographs were taken from a helicopter. Helicopters were not part of the original agreement between the four powers, so although they could fly within West Berlin airspace, they had to be shipped through the GDR on low loaders…..

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HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

My intention is not to portray a particular message, but just share some of my photographs and experiences with you. 

Photographs are copyrighted to Harvey Black