The Red Effect. The Cold War hots up. Part 5.

The first novel in my ‘Cold War’ trilogy, The Red Effect, published by SilverWood Books, is now available. Thoroughly enjoyed writing it, as i do with all my novels. There are three books in total, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980′s. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, encompasses part of the intelligence build up leading to the initial Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The purpose of the posts is to give the reader some additional background information to enhance their reading experience.

. RedEffect72dpi-4 .

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Available now. The Cold War that became a Hot War.

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

The perception of a potential Third World War, was generally one of a nuclear war. It may have come to that. In reality we will never know. But, one scenario is that of a conventional war. The massed forces of the Warsaw Pact against the supposedly technically superior, but weaker, NATO armies, that may well have escalated into a nuclear exchange.

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Allied Forces Central Europe, AFCENT

Allied Forces Central Europe, AFCENT, would have to take the brunt of any attack by the Warsaw Pact forces. With responsibility for Parts of Europe stretching from Denmark in the north to the borders of Austria in the south, it had three subordinate commands. The two key ones, Northern Army Group, NORTHAG, and Central Army Group, CENTAG. For this and the next Post, I will concentrate on CENTAG:

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The Corps sectors of responsibility for NATO forces in the 80s. The layer cake principle was used.

CENTAG, Central Army Group, had four powerful frontline Corps to defend its sector from just south of Kassel to the border with Austria. III German Corps in the north, then the V and VII US Corps with II German Corps in the south. For this Post I will focus on V US Corps, who had the prime responsibility for defending the well known Fulda-Gap.

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V Corps shoulder badge insignia.

V US Corps had three key units to provide the defence of the Fulda Gap. More on the Fulda-Gap later.

V US Corps. HQ – Frankfurt

3rd  (US) Armoured (Spearhead) Division (Frankfurt-am-Main

1st Brigade – Kirchgoens

  • 2nd and 4th Battalion, 32nd Armoured Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 2nd and 3rd mechanised Infantry Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment

2nd Brigade

  • 3rd and 4th Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 1st Battalion, 48th Mechanised Infantry Regiment

3rd Brigade

  • 2nd and 4th Battalion, 67th Cavalry Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 1st Battalion, 36th Infantry Regiment. 

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An XM1 at Fort Knox, Kentucky in 1969

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105mm M1 Abrams of the 11th Armoured Cavalry Regiment at a training area, Germany, 1986. First introduced in in 1980, it was the replacement for the ageing M-60. Armed with the licence-built version of the 105mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun.

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Abrams during desert Storm in 1991. Honeywell AGT1500C multi-fuel turbine engine powering the 60+ ton tank to speeds up 40mph.

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M1A1 in Iraq, September 2004.

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US Army M1A2 Abrams 

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M1A1 Abrams, Germany 2005.

3rd Combat Aviation Brigade

  • 2nd Battalion, 227th Attack Helicopter Regiment (21 x AH1F, 13 x OH58C, 3 x UH60A)
  • 3rd battalion, 227th Attack Helicopter Regiment (18 x AH64A, 13 x OH58C, 3 x UH60A)
  • G Company, 227th Attack Helicopter Regiment (6 x UH1H, 6 x OH58A, 6 x OH58D, 3 x EH60)
  • H Company, 227th Attack Helicopter Regiment (15 x UH60A)

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Bell 207 Sioux Scout. A mockup of Bell’s D-255 helicopter gunship concept, named Iroquois Warrior.

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Israeli AH-1F Cobras. Crew of 2. 20mm M197 3-barreled gatling cannon, 70mm rockets and 4 or 8 TOW anti-tank missiles.

3rd Artillery Division.

  • 72 x M109A3, 9 x MRLS

8th Infantry Division

1st Brigade

  • 1st Armoured Battalion, 68th Armoured Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 4th Armoured Battalion, 69th Armoured Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 3rd and 5th Mechanised Infantry Battalion.

2nd Brigade

  • 2nd  Armoured Battalion, 69th Armoured Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 1st Battalion, 13th Mechanised Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion, 39th Mechanised Infantry Regiment

3rd Brigade

  • 5th Armoured Battalion, 68th Armoured Regiment (Abrams-M1)
  • 5th Armoured Battalion, 77th Armoured Regiment (M60A3)
  • 4th Mechanised Infantry Battalion.

8th Infantry Division Artillery.

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M-60 tank. Slowly being replaced by the M1 Abrams

8th Combat Aviation Brigade

  • 3rd Squadron, 7th Cavalry Regiment (M60A3)
  • 2nd Battalion, 4th Attack Helicopter Regiment (21 x AH1F, 13 x OH58C, 3 x UH60A)
  • 3rd battalion, 4th Attack Helicopter Regiment (21 x AH1F, 13 x OH58C, 3 x UH60A)
  • G Company, 4th Attack Helicopter Regiment (6 x UH1H, 6 x OH58A, 6 x OH58D, 3 x EH60)
  • H Company, 4th Attack Helicopter Regiment (15 x UH60A)

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OH-58 Kiowa. 

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OH-58D Kiowa. Unique IR suppression systems mounted on its turbine exhaust. Scout helicopters, some armed with AIM-92 air-to-air Stinger missiles.

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UH-60A Black Hawk. Troop carrier, minelayer and medical evacuation.

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UH-60A’s over Port Salinas during the invasion of Grenada, 1983. The first use of the Black-Hawk in a conflict.

11th Armoured Cavalry Regiment

  • 1st, 2nd and 3rd Cavalry Squadrons (Abrams-M1)
  • 4th Air Cavalry Squadron (26 x AH1F, 27 x OH58C, 3 x UH60, 18 x UH60A

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M2A2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle. Main armament is a 25mm M242 Chain Gun. TOW anti-tank missiles.

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Top speed of 40mph on roads. Six troops could be carried in the passenger compartment. 

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i hope this has given you a further insight into what NATO, in particular the US Army, had in its arsenal. Going forward I will add more information in support of my Cold War trilogy, including maps and photographs.

The Blog is copyrighted to Harvey Black.

. HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Kindle and Paperback version out now! The Cold War that became a Hot War.

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The Red Effect. The day the Cold War turned Hot. Part 4.

The first novel in my ‘Cold War’ trilogy, The Red Effect, published by SilverWood Books, is now available. Thoroughly enjoyed writing it, as i do with all my novels. There will be three books in total, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980’s. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, encompasses part of the intelligence build up leading to the initial Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The purpose of the next few posts is to give the reader some additional background information to enhance their reading experience.

. RedEffect72dpi-4 .

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Available now. The Cold War that became a Hot War.

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

The perception of a potential Third World War, was generally one of a nuclear war. It may have come to that. In reality we will never know. But, one scenario is that of a conventional war. The massed forces of the Warsaw Pact against the supposedly technically superior, but weaker, NATO armies, that may well have escalated into a nuclear exchange.

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It was anticipated that 1 British Corps would be up against the Soviet 3rd Shock Army, consisting of four armoured divisions. The first echelon of 3SA could consist of 10th Guards Tank Division and 7th Guards Tank Division. They alone would have in the region of 700 main battle tanks. Once through the British covering force, a thin screen to slow down the Soviet advance, they would attempt to punch through the main force, committing two further divisions to exploit any breakthrough. As it is likely that the Soviet Army would attack a reduced sector, enabling them to consolidate their forces, a unit like the 1st Armoured Division, with about 200 tanks, would probably find two of it’s Brigades, with 100-150 Chieftain or Challenger tanks,  attempting to stop this onslaught. But, that is not all they would have to contend with:

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Soviet paratroopers drop from a Tupolev TB-3 in 1930.

After the initial experimental jump in 1930, during 1932/33, larger units were created. By 1941, the Soviet army had established  five Airborne Corps.

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Spetsnaz training facility, also often used by airborne forces.

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Present day Russian Airborne troops.

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The Soviet Airborne troops or VDV, Vozdushno Desantyne Voyska (Air-Landing Forces), were classed as elite troops, hence the blue berets and blue and white horizontally striped shirt beneath their one-piece coveralls.

In the 80’s, the Soviet army had at least 6 Airborne Divisions and some 15 Air Assault Brigades.

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Soviet airborne troops waiting to board an Ilyushin II-76 ‘Candid’ aircraft.

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1984, Soviet airborne troops boarding a Candid, which was capable of carrying 140 armed troops, or 125 paratroopers.

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The Airborne Division and the Air Assault Brigade, were two types of Soviet Airborne unit.  An Airborne Division, made up of 3 BMD (BMD-airborne armoured personnel carrier) Regiments, an artillery regiment, an assault gun, anti-aircraft, engineer, signal, transport and medical battalion, along with a reconnaissance and chemical defence company. With over 6,500 men, it was a force to be reckoned with. Should 1 British Corps find two of these divisions suddenly dropping behind their lines, it would cause havoc. Unless the 2nd Infantry Division had arrived from the UK to conduct rear area defence, the front-line divisions would have to divert reserves to deal with this additional menace.

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A Soviet airborne amphibious tracked infantry combat vehicle. It can be palletised and dropped by parachute or off-loaded from an aircraft after a standard runway landing.

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Present day, airborne troops in Abkhazia.

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An ASU-85 of the Polish 6th Air Assault Division. In the 80’s, the Polish army had two airborne divisions that would have been used as part of the Warsaw Pact forces invading West Germany. The 15.5 ton, ASU-85, with its 85mm gun, gave the airborne forces some light infantry support and limited anti-tank capability once on the ground. It could be air-dropped, using a high-capacity multi-chute and retro-rocket systems, or underslung from a Mi-6 Hook helicopter.

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Soviet airborne troops in Kosovo.

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An Air Assault Brigade on the other hand was much smaller. It would have two BMD assault battalions and two parachute battalions. They were supported by a reconnaissance company, artillery and air-defence battalions, along with signals, engineers, transport, supply, chemical defence and medical support. The Brigade would range from between 2,000 – 2,600 men. A mix of air assets would be used to land this force behind NATO lines. Again, 1 Br Corps could find perhaps two of these units, over a period of a couple of days, securing key river crossing points, securing high ground, cutting off reinforcements and supplies or airfields and even known Nuclear weapons storage sites.

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Mi-8, Hip helicopter. Capable of carrying between 14 and 24, dependent on helicopter model, combat equipped troops. 

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It could insert advance parties to secure landing zones ready for the main force.

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The Mi-8 Hip could also be used to provide air-to-ground support for landing troops.

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Armed with either Swatter anti-tank missiles, 192 x 67mm rockets and a 12.7mm nose mounted machine gun, it would make it hard work for the defenders to counter an assault. The Soviet Army would have nearly 2,000 of these to support air landings and to act as ground-to-air support.

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They would also bring in the big boys, the Hind. Again a phenomenal amount of weaponry was available. Starting with its four-barrel, 12.7mm gatling machine gun, four 57mm rocket-pods (32 rockets per pod) and four Swatter anti-tank guided missiles it would cause havoc on the front line and in the rear area. Over 1,000 tank busting helicopters would help to facilitate landings behind the NATO front line.

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Mi-6 Hooks. They could deploy troops at speed, quickly enveloping smaller NATO units in the rear.

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Hip helicopter, landing an assault battalion from a Soviet division’s assets.

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So, 1 Br Corps would probably have to handle at least one full airborne division behind its front line, if not two. Between 6,000 and 13,000 well trained, highly motivated, aggressive troops causing havoc, up to one hundred kilometres behind the Forward Line of Own Troops (FLOT). They could cut-off a division’s resupply, disrupt reinforcements and even attack the defending units from behind. Then, perhaps one or two Air Assault Brigades would target key strategic areas and river crossing points. Perhaps another 2,500-5,000 men. Let’s put this into persecutive. Between 8,500 and 18,000 Soviet airborne forces could target an area, defended by a British division, the division having up to 200 tanks and 9,000 men.  If 2nd Infantry Division was in Theatre, some reinforcements would be available. 1 BR Corps would have to redeploy other units and would be dependent on support from either the German or Dutch Armies. Then, of course, there would be the Soviet attacking force to the front.

Is that all? Far from it. The Group of Soviet Forces had five Spetsnaz battalions at its disposal, each battalion able to operate in up to 25 groups of 10 men. In addition, two Spetsnaz Brigades of 1,500 to 2,000 men each were available, operating in groups of 50-150. They would be used to target and destroy any Nuclear capability that the british forces might possess, neutralisation of any Surface-to-Air missile sites, seizure of airfields, bridges, logistics and centres of communication. The 16 Military Districts had one Brigade each along with one each for the Central Group of Soviet Forces, Northern Group of Soviet Forces and the Southern Group of Soviet Forces.

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Spetsnaz units could be parachuted in under the cover of darkness. Some Spetsnaz units would have crossed over into West Germany prior to the invasion of the West, coming out of hiding to assassinate key leaders and destroy communications centres. The Spetsialnogo Naznacheniya (Special Designation) had a peacetime strength of 30,000. The peacetime strength of the British SAS was probably 300. The wartime strength of the Spetsnaz would increase to 100,000-120,000. They came under the jurisdiction of the 3rd department of the GRU’s 5th Directorate, commanded by a Colonel-General.

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Spetsnaz, highly trained and deadly.

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West of Helmstedt, July the 5th, 1984.

3 Shock Army has one of its first echelon divisions, 10th Guards Tank Division, with the its first echelon regiments, 62nd Tank Regiment and the 248th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, assaulting the covering force of 4th Armoured Division.

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South of Hannover and west of Hildesheim. Dispositions of 22nd Armoured Brigade.

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The 14th/20th Kings Hussars Battle Group has the task of defending a section of the River Leine. Combat Team Alpha, with a squadron of Chieftain tanks, east of Elze, Combat Team Bravo, with three tank troops and a platoon from the Royal Green Jackets, have the task of defending Gronau. Combat Team Charlie, with a tank squadron, has been deployed in Eime as the Battle Group reserve. Combat Team Delta, a full tank squadron, has Banteln. A recce troop of Scimitars has been deployed in and around Banteln. To the north of 14/20th is the Royal Green jackets Battle group, and to the south, the 2nd Royal Tank Regiment.

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i hope this has given you a further insight into what NATO, in particular the British Army, would have been up against. Going forward I will add more information in support of my Cold War trilogy, including maps and photographs.

The equipment Photographs, maps and Blog are copyrighted to Harvey Black.

. HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Kindle version out now! The Cold War that became a Hot War. 

.

The Red Effect. The day the Cold War turned Hot. Part 3.

The first novel in my ‘Cold War’ trilogy, The Red Effect, published by SilverWood Books, is available. Thoroughly enjoyed writing it, as i do with all my novels. There are three books in total, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980’s. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, encompasses part of the intelligence build up leading to the initial Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The purpose of the next few posts is to give the reader some additional background information to enhance their reading experience.

. RedEffect72dpi-4 .

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Available now. The Cold War that became a Hot War.

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

The perception of a potential Third World War, was generally one of a nuclear war. It may have come to that. In reality we will never know. But, one scenario is that of a conventional war. The massed forces of the Warsaw Pact against the supposedly technically superior, but weaker, NATO armies, that may well have escalated into a nuclear exchange.

.

In my last post I touched on the fact that the Soviets considered Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) weapons as a key part of their arsenal. NBC training was conducted by the British Army, and other NATO armies, in readiness if the Warsaw Pact used them in the event of a war. Although we trained hard, it was not always taken seriously. Fighting in full NBC kit was far from comfortable, but the consequences of not being prepared, for the individual soldier at least, would more than likely be death.

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A vacuum sealed, Mark IV protective smock.

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Vacuum packed Mark IV, protective NBC trousers.

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S6 NBC Respirator was issued to the British armed forces from 1966 until replaced by the S10 in 1986. A soldier would initially be supplied with two canisters, one on the respirator and one kept sealed in the respirator case.

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S6 respirator case. This would also contain Decontamination kit Personal 1, basically a ‘blot-bang’. A small pad full of fullers earth, with the instructions to blot, bang and rub. DKP2, a puffer bottle containing fullers earth. Anti-dimming compound, Detector paper (one colour) which turned dark blue if chemical liquid agents were present..

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NBC over-boots.

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Tread on the bottoms. Laced up over the soldiers combat boots. Unless tight, they had a tendency to slip sideways when running or moving across undulating ground.

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Black, rubberised protective gloves. White liner gloves would be worn beneath them.

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The trouser would be put on first.

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Straps/braces would hold them up.

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The smock, like the trousers, had a black, charcoal impregnated liner.

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Because it is semi-permeable, allowing perspiration to escape, once exposed to a liquid agent it needed to be replaced as soon as possible. 

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The Mark IV, unlike the Mark III, had a front-zipped smock.

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The Over-boots fitted.

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S6 Respirator with hood pulled over the top.

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Helmet and 58-pattern webbing and the transformation is complete.

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Chemical weapons consisted of the following types:

Blister Agents:

Mustard Gas and Nitrogen Mustards – Cause severe chemical burns resulting in painful water blisters. The fluid blisters heal slowly and can become infected. It is readily absorbed through eyes, lungs and skin. Exposure to the mustard vapour becomes evident in 4-6 hours and through the skin, 2-48 hours. For Lewisite, the impact is immediate.

As well as killing many soldiers, it would also put major pressure on the Army’s medical services.

Blister-arm

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Result of being exposed to a blister agent.

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Blood Agents:

Hydrogen Cyanide, Cyanogen Chloride and Arsine – Generally entering the body via inhalation, they inhibit the ability of blood cells to utilise and transfer oxygen, effectively causing the body to suffocate.

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Hi-level protection required when handling Blood Agents.

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Nerve Agents:

Organo-phosphorous compounds, Tabun, Sarin, Soman, GF, VX – Nerve Agents acquired their name because they effect the transmission of nerve impulses in the nervous system. Easily dispersed, highly toxic and can be rapidly absorbed through the skin and via respiration. Death would occur in a matter of minutes and it would be a horrible death.

There are persistent and non-persistent agents. The Warsaw Pact would use non-persistent to kill or debilitate the defenders, but the target would be clear of contamination for their assault. Persistent agents would used to potentially deny NATO forces access to bridges, they need to use for logistics, ammunition depots and airfields.

Red effect 3 081 (1)VG Nerve Agent.

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Biological Agents:

Anthrax, Brucellosis, Lassa fever, Typhus, Botulinum Toxin, etc.

Nuclear

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Speaks for itself, 

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Going forward i will add more information in support of my Cold War trilogy, including maps and photographs. Part 4 will cover the Soviet Spetsnaz and Airborne.

The equipment Photographs and Blog are copyrighted to Harvey Black.

. HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Kindle version out now! The Cold War that became a Hot War. Paperback edition imminent.

.

 

The first novel in my ‘Cold War’ trilogy, The Red Effect, published by SilverWood Books, is now available. Thoroughly enjoyed writing it, as i do with all my novels. There will be three books in total, covering the hypothetical invasion of West Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, by the Warsaw Pact in the mid 1980’s. Book 1, ‘The Red Effect’, encompasses part of the intelligence build up leading to the initial Warsaw Pact strike against the NATO forces lined up against them. The purpose of the next few posts is to give the reader some additional background information to enhance their reading experience.

.

RedEffect72dpi-4

.

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Available now. The Cold War that became a Hot War.

The Cold War era started very soon after the end of the second world war, when the communist east, led by the Soviet Union, and the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, faced each across what became known as the ‘Iron Curtain’.

.

The perception of a potential Third World War, was generally one of a nuclear war. It may have come to that. In reality we will never know. But, one scenario is that of a conventional war. The massed forces of the Warsaw Pact against the supposedly technically superior, but weaker, NATO armies, that may well have escalated into a nuclear exchange.

.

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The Chinese Type 59, main battle tank. Top speed of 30mph.

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It is essentially a copy of the Soviet T-54 tank. Powered by a V-12 liquid cooled diesel engine.

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A rugged simple design, ideal for mass production.

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36 tons on torsion bar suspension.

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A 100mm, rifled main gun. Over 9,000 were built. .

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Although the tank was fairly dated in the 80’s, the Soviet army still possessed 35,000 T-54/55 and T-62s.

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T-62 main battle tank.

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This one was captured from the Iraqi forces during the Gulf War in 1991.

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Top speed of fifty miles an hour.

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It had a thirsty diesel engine, covering 2 miles to the gallon. 

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115mm main gun

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The BMP-1, another captured vehicle from the Iraq war. Above the the main gun, there is a Sagger anti-tank, wire guided missile. When the Israelis first came across the sagger missile, packed in a large suit-case type container, and set up on the ground, they destroyed their tanks with devastating effect.

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This can claim the mantle of being the first ever mechanised infantry combat vehicle. The west followed later with vehicles such as the Warrior and the American M2 Bradley.

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The Soviet soldiers would exit via the two rear doors. It weighed 13.5 tons and had armour 23mm thick. They could also exit through four hatches in the roof. The hollow doors also acted as fuel tanks, meaning a hit from behind would have a devastating effect. The internal fuel tank was located between the benches in the rear, putting the soldiers at risk.

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It was also amphibious, driven through the water by the movement of the tracks, hence the vanes at the rear.

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Although very cramped due to its low profile, it could carry eight soldiers in the troop compartment. Four ports either side allowed the soldiers to fire from within the vehicle.

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The 73mm main gun, was a low-pressure, semi-automatic smooth-bore gun.

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It could travel up to a speed of 40mph. It also had a radiation-shielded interior, allowing it to fight in contaminated areas. The Soviet military saw future wars being conducted using nuclear, biological and nuclear weapons.

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The Soviet BRDM-2. Although primarily a traditional reconnaissance vehicle, also had other roles.

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This version of the BRDM-2, another vehicle captured from the Iraqi forces, is a chemical reconnaissance vehicle.

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Equipped to locate areas of the battlefield contaminated with nuclear, biological or chemical weapons and mark a safe passage for advancing forces.

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The safe route was identified by firing the yellow flags into the ground as it moved through the area.

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BRDM2-rkh

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Nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were a key part of the Soviet arsenal.

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Blister-arm

Soviet Chemical Weapons:

Blister Agent

Causes severe skin, eye and mucosal pain. Breathed in and the effects would be far worse, causing major damage to the lungs.

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Sarin-3D-balls

Nerve Agents:

Sarin – Disrupts the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to vital organs. Contraction of the pupils, profuse salivation, involuntary urination and deification and eventual death by asphyxiation.

Blood Agents:

Works at the cellular level by preventing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the body’s cells. Cells suffocate from lack of oxygen.

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This is the bog standard BRDM-2 Reconnaissance vehicle. Although a four-wheel vehicle, between the main wheels there are a pair of smaller wheels either side. These are chain driven from the gearbox and can be lowered to assist across rough ground, 

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Much larger than the ideal reconnaissance vehicle, but the size was necessary as a consequence of it needing to be amphibious. In fact it is twice the size of a British Ferret reconnaissance vehicle.

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Powered by a Gaz V8 petrol engine.

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The engine also provides power for the ducted water jet that it uses when swimming. The flap at the back pivots sideways allowing the jet to push the vehicle through the water.

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Top speed of 60mph, a 14.5mm gun in the turret  and a crew of 4.

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Going forward i will add more information in support of my Cold War trilogy, including maps and photographs.

The equipment Photographs and Blog are copyrighted to Harvey Black.

.

HarveyBlack-Red Effect150313

‘The Red Effect’ by Harvey Black – Kindle and Paperback versions available now.  The Cold War that became a Hot War.

.